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美國近期暴發新城疫疫情流行特點分析

點擊數:2466  時間:2019-07-31 14:07:50  來源: 中國動物檢疫      

2018年5月,美國加利福尼亞州在南部地區發病散養雞中檢測到新城疫病毒強毒株。這是美國自2003年以來,首次出現新城疫病毒強毒株感染的報道。該病傳播速度快、緻死率高。截至2019年5月24日,美國農業部已在加利福尼亞州、猶他州和亞利桑那州共确診新城疫疫情425起,其中加利福尼亞州423起,猶他州、亞利桑那州各1起。病原學分析顯示,此次流行的新城疫病毒屬于基因Vb亞型。初步遺傳分析表明,本次疫情暴發為單點傳入并造成二次擴散,但病毒暴發的起源仍未确定。病例對照研究表明,禽群數量大小、觀賞鳥、禽群中公雞高占比、與野鳥接觸等是病毒感染的風險因素。美國政府已采取包括限制移動易感動物、撲殺暴露動物、提升飼養場生物安全水平、避免家禽與野禽接觸以及家禽與其他傳染源接觸、加強監測篩查和流行病學跟蹤支持等等一系列舉措來控制新城疫疫情的傳播。但該病毒仍具有持續性威脅,或有進一步傳播的可能,對于該疫病的防控和監測工作仍在繼續。

Analysison the Epidemiological Characteristics of Newcastle Disease Outbreak in theUnited States

On May16,2018,a strain of virulent Newcastle diseasevirus(NDV)was detected infree-range chickens in southern California,which wasthe first report in the United States since 2003. As the disease could spreadrapidly with high fatality rate,425 cases had beenconfirmed in California,Utah and Arizona by UnitedStates Department of Agriculture(USDA)till May 24,2019,including423 cases in California,1 case in Utah and in Arizonarespectively. The pathogen analysis showed that,currentNDV was classified into gene subtype Vb. The outbreak was considered as the secondaryspread caused by single-point introduction in accordance with preliminarygenetic analysis,however,thevirus source was still unclear. Further,it wasindicated that,by comparing and studying all cases,the risk factors of infection mainly included flock size,pet birds,high proportion of cocks inpoultry flocks,contacting with wild birds,etc. To control the outbreak,a series ofmeasures were adopted by USDA,including isolatingsusceptible animals,culling exposed animals,strengthening surveillance and screening,supportingepidemiological tracking,avoiding any contact with wildbirds or other infectious sources,and improving thelevel of bio-safety in farms. However,there was stillsome ongoing threats,or the disease had the possibilityto further spread,so the prevention and control orsurveillance of the disease was still continuing.

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